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發布日期2019/04/10
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標題【新聞 WHO 控菸新探索】2019年世界無菸日:吸菸與肺部健康
詳細資料

2019年世界無菸日:吸菸與肺部健康

2019年5月31日

第32個世界無菸日

——吸菸與肺部健康

世界衛生組織(世衛組織)和全球合作夥伴每年于5月31日舉辦世界無菸日活動,借此一年一度之機促進就菸草使用和接觸二手菸霧的有害和致命影響提高認識,並勸阻使用任何形式的菸草。

2019年世界無菸日的重點是“吸菸與肺部健康”,旨在提高人們對以下問題的認識:

菸草對人們肺部健康的負面影響,包括從癌症到慢性呼吸系統疾病。

肺對所有人的健康與福祉起著根本作用。

該活動還可作為行動呼籲,宣導實施有效政策以減少菸草消費,並鼓勵多種部門的利益攸關方參與控菸斗爭。

菸品如何危害全世界人民的肺部健康

2019年世界無菸日將重點關注接觸菸草影響全世界人民肺部健康的多種方式。

具體包括:

肺癌。吸菸是導致肺癌的主要原因,全球三分之二以上肺癌死亡由吸菸所致。在家中或工作場所接觸二手菸霧也會增加罹患肺癌的風險。戒菸可降低肺癌風險:戒菸10年後,肺癌風險可降至吸菸者的一半左右。

慢性呼吸系統疾病。吸菸是慢性阻塞性肺病的主要原因,慢性阻塞性肺病指充滿膿液的粘液在肺部積聚,導致痛苦的咳嗽和呼吸困難。由於菸草菸霧可顯著減緩肺部發育,因此年輕時便開始吸菸的人罹患慢性阻塞性肺病的風險尤其高。菸草還會加劇哮喘,而哮喘會限制活動並導致殘疾。儘早戒菸是減緩慢性阻塞性肺病發展和改善哮喘症狀的最有效治療方法。

影響生命全程。因母親吸菸或母親接觸二手菸霧而在子宮內暴露於菸草菸霧毒素的嬰兒,經常會出現肺部生長及功能減退的情況。接觸二手菸霧的幼兒面臨哮喘、肺炎和支氣管炎發病及惡化的風險,並可能頻繁罹患下呼吸道感染。

全球估計有16.5萬名兒童因二手菸霧引起的下呼吸道感染在5歲之前死亡。能夠活到成年的人則繼續遭受因接觸二手菸霧導致的健康後果,因為幼兒時期頻繁罹患下呼吸道感染會顯著增加成年後患慢性阻塞性肺病的風險。

結核病。結核病會損害肺部並降低肺功能,吸菸會進一步減弱肺功能。菸草菸霧的化學成分可引發結核病的潛伏感染,約四分之一的人患有這種感染。由吸菸造成的肺部健康損害會加重活動性結核病,由此大大增加因呼吸衰竭而致殘和死亡的風險。

空氣污染。菸草菸霧是一種非常危險的室內空氣污染形式:它含有超過7000種化學物質,其中69種已知會導致癌症。雖然菸霧可能是看不見和無味的,但它可以在空氣中徘徊長達五個小時,使那些接觸者面臨肺癌、慢性呼吸系統疾病和肺功能降低的風險。

2019年世界無菸日運動目標

改善肺部健康的最有效措施是減少菸草使用和對二手菸霧的接觸。但是,在一些國家,普通大眾,特別是在吸菸者中,對吸菸和接觸二手菸霧給人們肺部健康造成的影響認識低下。儘管有確鑿證據表明菸草對肺部健康造成危害,但仍然低估菸草控制對改善肺部健康的潛力。

2019年世界無菸日將在以下方面提高認識:

●吸菸和接觸二手菸霧帶來的風險;

●瞭解吸菸對肺部健康的特殊危害;

●菸草引起的全球肺部疾病死亡和患病的嚴重程度,包括慢性呼吸系統疾病和肺癌;

●關於吸菸與結核病死亡之間聯繫的新證據;

●接觸二手菸霧對不同年齡組人群肺部健康的影響;

●肺部健康對實現整體健康與福祉的重要性;

●主要受眾(包括公眾和政府)為減少菸草對肺部健康造成的風險可採取的可行措施和行動。

菸草和肺部健康這個跨領域問題對其他全球進程(例如為促進健康而控制非傳染性疾病、結核病和空氣污染的國際努力)具有影響,並為各部門利益攸關方的參與提供了機會,同時使各國有能力加強實施《世界衛生組織菸草控制框架公約》中行之有效的MPOWER控菸措施。

行動呼籲

僅做到無疾病並不能實現肺部健康,菸草菸霧對全球吸菸者和非吸菸者的肺部健康具有重大影響。

為了實現可持續發展目標下關於到2030年將非傳染性疾病導致的過早死亡減少三分之一的具體目標,菸草控制必須成為全球政府和社區的一個優先事項。目前,世界沒有在按計劃實現這一具體目標。

各國應通過全面實施《世界衛生組織菸草控制框架公約》和以最高程度採用MPOWER措施來應對菸草流行,其中包括制定、實施和執行旨在減少菸草需求的最有效的菸草控制政策。

家長和其他社區成員也應該採取措施,保護自己和孩子免受菸草造成的傷害,從而促進健康。

World No Tobacco Day

31 May 2019

Tobacco and lung health

Every year, on 31 May, the World Health Organization (WHO) and global partners celebrate World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The annual campaign is an opportunity to raise awareness on the harmful and deadly effects of tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and to discourage the use of tobacco in any form.

The focus of World No Tobacco Day 2019 is on "tobacco and lung health." The campaign will increase awareness on:

• the negative impact that tobacco has on people’s lung health, from cancer to chronic respiratory disease,

• the fundamental role lungs play for the health and well-being of all people.

The campaign also serves as a call to action, advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption and engaging stakeholders across multiple sectors in the fight for tobacco control.

How tobacco endangers the lung health of people worldwide

World No Tobacco Day 2019 will focus on the multiple ways that exposure to tobacco affects the health of people’s lungs worldwide.

These include:

Lung cancer. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause for lung cancer, responsible for over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally. Second-hand smoke exposure at home or in the work place also increases risk of lung cancer. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of lung cancer: after 10 years of quitting smoking, risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker.

Chronic respiratory disease. Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition where the build-up of pus-filled mucus in the lungs results in a painful cough and agonising breathing difficulties. The risk of developing COPD is particularly high among individuals who start smoking at a young age, as tobacco smoke significantly slows lung development. Tobacco also exacerbates asthma, which restricts activity and contributes to disability. Early smoking cessation is the most effective treatment for slowing the progression of COPD and improving asthma symptoms.

Across the life-course. Infants exposed in-utero to tobacco smoke toxins, through maternal smoking or maternal exposure to second-hand smoke, frequently experience reduced lung growth and function. Young children exposed to second-hand smoke are at risk of the onset and exacerbation of asthma, pneumonia and bronchitis, and frequent lower respiratory infections.

Globally, an estimated 165 000 children die before the age of 5 of lower respiratory infections caused by second-hand smoke. Those who live on into adulthood continue to suffer the health consequences of second-hand smoke exposure, as frequent lower respiratory infections in early childhood significantly increase risk of developing COPD in adulthood.

Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) damages the lungs and reduces lung function, which is further exacerbated by tobacco smoking. The chemical components of tobacco smoke can trigger latent infections of TB, which around a quarter of all people are infected with. Active TB, compounded by the damaging lung health effects of tobacco smoking, substantially increases risk of disability and death from respiratory failure.

Air pollution. Tobacco smoke is a very dangerous form of indoor air pollution: it contains over 7 000 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer.Though smoke may be invisible and odourless, it can linger in the air for up to five hours, putting those exposed at risk of lung cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and reduced lung function.

Goals of the World No Tobacco Day 2019 campaign

The most effective measure to improve lung health is to reduce tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. But knowledge among large sections of the general public, and particularly among smokers, on the implications for the health of people’s lungs from tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke exposure is low in some countries. Despite strong evidence of the harms of tobacco on lung health, the potential of tobacco control for improving lung health remains underestimated.

The World No Tobacco Day 2019 campaign will raise awareness on the:

•risks posed by tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke exposure;

•awareness on the particular dangers of tobacco smoking to lung health;

•magnitude of death and illness globally from lung diseases caused by tobacco, including chronic respiratory diseases and lung cancer;

•emerging evidence on the link between tobacco smoking and tuberculosis deaths;

•implications of second-hand exposure for lung health of people across age groups;

•importance of lung health to achieving overall health and well-being;

•feasible actions and measures that key audiences, including the public and governments, can take to reduce the risks to lung health posed by tobacco.

The cross-cutting theme of tobacco and lung health has implications for other global processes, such as international efforts to control noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), TB and air pollution for promoting health. It serves as an opportunity to engage stakeholders across sectors and empower countries to strengthen the implementation of the proven MPOWER tobacco control measures contained in the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).

Call to action

Lung health is not achieved merely through the absence of disease, and tobacco smoke has major implications for the lung health of smokers and non-smokers globally.

In order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of a one-third reduction in NCD premature mortality by 2030, tobacco control must be a priority for governments and communities worldwide. Currently, the world is not on track to meeting this target.

Countries should respond to the tobacco epidemic through full implementation of the WHO FCTC and by adopting the MPOWER measures at the highest level of achievement, which involves developing, implementing, and enforcing the most effective tobacco control policies aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco.

Parents and other members of the community should also take measures to promote their own health, and that of their children, by protecting them from the harms caused by tobacco.

新聞出處:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/n8hYGTEvq6Gkp8xdyC5t6A

WHO 世界無菸日:https://www.who.int/zh/news-room/events/detail/2019/05/31/default-calendar/world-no-tobacco-day

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